Faculty   Faculty of Arts
Department of Geography

Progress in Geography form traditional modern began in 1950 almost coinciding with the launching of the Five Year Plan of Economic Development and expansion in research and teaching. The new department of Geography in this university has been established to attract new talent that following suitable training is expected to spread awareness about the important discipline of Geography. As a subject, Geography is also very popular with candidates appearing in Civil Services and other competitive examinations. Keeping this in view, the following programmes of study are offered by the department.
The Department of Geography was establishment in 2004 M.A./M.Sc and Diploma Course in RS&GIS. Later on M. Phil programme in Geography was also added to it now three new courses were also added for current session. Since then the department has produced several M.Phil and Post Graduate in Geography and Diploma holders in RS & GIS. Two Minor Researches Project has completed and one Major Research Project is being carried out by Dr. Susheel Kumar. All these projects have been sponsored by University Grand Commission. Students of the department have obtained positions in the University. Ten students of them have cleared NET/SLET/JRF examinations and four students have been awarded with Rajeev Gandhi Fellowship.

P.G. Diploma in R.S. & G.I.S.
P.G. Diploma in Disaster Management.
P.G. Diploma in Meteorology.
P.G. Diploma in Population Studies.
M. Phil (Geography)
It is one year (two semesters) programme.
It is two year (four semesters) programme.
P.G. Diploma in R.S.&G.I.S.
It is one year (two semesters) programme
P.G. Diploma in Disaster Management.
It is one year (two semesters) programme
P.G. Diploma in Meteorology
It is one year (two semesters) programme
P.G. Diploma in Population Studies.
It is one year (two semesters) programme
Nature/Type.  Information should be sent separately for regular and Self- financed courses.
Eligibility Conditions.
Master degree in concerned subject with 55% marks
Bachelor’s degree in any subject with at least 45% marks.
P.G. Diploma in R.S. & G.I.S.
Second class Bachelor’s degree in any subject.
P.G. Diploma in Disaster Management.
Second class Bachelor’s degree in any subject.
P.G. Diploma in Meteorology
Second class Bachelor’s degree in any subject.
P.G. Diploma in Population Studies
Second class Bachelor’s degree in any subject.
Intake (Number of Seats)
10 Seats
M.Sc./ M.A.
20 Seats
P.G. Diploma in R.S. & G.I.S.
12 Seats
P.G. Diploma in Disaster Management
12 Seats
Course along with Syallabus.
Ist Semester                
                                    Geographical Thought                                      M.P.    109
                                    Research Methodology in Population Geography        
IInd Semester
                                    Geography of Regional Development                M.P.    110
                                    Cartography of Remote Sensing   
M.Sc/ M.A. 
Ist Semester
                                   Regional Geography of India                             P.G.     401
                                   Geomorphology                                               P.G.     402

IInd Semester
                                    Geography of Resources                                   PG       386
                                    History of Geographical Thought                        PG       387

IIIrd Semester
                                    Climatology & Oceanography                            PG       404
                                    Urban geography                                             PG       405

IVth Semester
                                    Population Geography                                      PG       388
                                    Agriculture Geography                                      PG       389
M. Phil. Syllabus
Designation Name Qulaifications Specializations Email Resume
Dr. Kanchan Singh M.A., M.Phi., Ph.D. Agriculture
Geographical Thought   
Email Resume
Lecturer Dr. Susheel Kuamr   M.A., M.Phil , Ph.D . Urban Geography Population Geography Email Resume
Lecturer Dr. Shalu M.A., Ph.D. Geomorphology Email Resume
Lecturer Sh. Praveen Kumar M.A., P.G.Dip. In R.S. & G.I.S . Remote Sensing Email Resume
Geography of Regional Development
Unit-I   conceptual framework: definition, development studies and social sciences, development and geography, economic development and regional development, regional disparity and regional diversity, issues in regional development planning.
Unit- II  Development models: descriptive, analytical and normative aspects of the development process, stages of growth models, spatial models.
Unit-III Theories related to spatial dimensions of economic growth by G. Myrdal and A.O. Hirschman; regional growth and location theories by E.M. Hoover, W. Isard and A. Losch; growth polo theories by F. Perroux and A. Kuklinski theories of J. Friedmann and E.A.J. Johnson; theories of regional underdevelopment by A.G. Frank and D. Slater; theories of decentralized development by D.A. Pondinelli an C. Weaver; and economic growth and regional development theories of B.Ohlin,  D.C. North and H.S. Perloff.
Unit-IV  Measurement of regional disparities; issues of the spatial scale; economic, social, political, infrastructure and ecological indicators of development, techniques of identifying regional disparities.
Unit -V Regional disparities in India.
M. Sc. /M.A. Syllabus
Regional Geography of India
Unit-I  Major physiographic Regions of India, Drainage systems and their  functional significances climate, current theories regarding the mechanism of Mansoom climatic Regions – Koppens, Trewarth and Stamp. Soil resources and conservation, Natural vegetation and its conservation.
Unit-II Agricultural system and technological problems of Indian agriculture, developments, agrarian, green revolution achievements and short comings, Agro-climatic regions of India. Regionalization of agriculture in India, food production and population growth.
Unit-III  Concentional and non-conventional power resources, regional set-up of hydel and thermol  generation, locational patterns and analysis of agro-based, forest based and mineral based industries, Industrial regions of India, Modes of transport, their signification and development, the pattern of foreign trade.
Unit-IV Socio-economic implications of explosive growth of population, distribution and density of population resource regions, trends of urbanization, urban regions population problems and policies.
Unit-V   Basis of regionalization – macro; meso and micro regional division of India, economic regionalization in India, Detailed study of the meso-regions of Great Plains – their inter-regional disparities with reference to agricultural, infrastructural and industrial development.

Unit-I:   Nature and scope of Geomorphology, Fundamental concepts- Geological structures and landforms, uniformitarianism, Recent trends in Geomorphology, multicyclic and polygenetic evolution of landscapes, geochronological methods. Geomorphic ideas of Davis and Penck.
Unit-II:  Earth movements – epeirogenic, orogenic and cymatogenic earth movements. Force of crustal instability, isostasy, plate tectonics, seismicity, vulcanicity, orogenic structures with reference to the evolution of the Himalaya.
Unit-III:  Exogenic Processes:  Concept of gradation, Agents and processes of gradation, causes, types and classification of weathering, massmovement erosional depositional processes and resultant landforms.
Unit-IV:  Geomorphic processes, dynamics of fluvial, glacial, Aeolian, marine and karst processes and resulting landforms complezities in geomorphological processes.
Unit-V: Applied geomorphology – application of geomorphic mapping terrain evaluation. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) land capabilityand land suitability classification, urban geomorphology, environmental geomorphology.

Geography of Resource
Unit-I Nature, scope and significance of the Geography of Resource, definition and concept of resource related to cultural, economic and technological development stage and perceptions. Classification of resources – renewability, availability and distribution of major natural resources – soils, forests fish and minerals.
Unit-II  Factors of Location of economic activities, physical, social, economic and cultural, concept and techniques of delimitation of agricultural regions, crop combination and diversification- Von Thunen’s model and its modifications.
Unit-III Classification of industries, Resource based and footloose industries. Theories of industrial location – Weber and Losch, Case studies of selected industries Iron and Steel, Oil refining and Textile, Industrial regions of U.S.A., U.K, Russia and Japan.
Unit-IV Modes of transportation and transport cost, accessibility and connectivity, international, inter and intraregional. Typology of markets, market network in rural societies, role of important sea routes in the development of trade and commerce (N Atlantic, Suez Canal and Panama Canal route)
Unit-V Economic development of India, Resources Regions of India, Impact of green revolution of Indian economy. Globalization and Indian economy and its impact on environment.
History of Geographical Thought
Unit –I  The field of geography Meaning, Philosophy and purpose of Geography Place of geography in the classification of sciences Geography as a social science and natural science. Concepts in the philosophy of geography – distributions, relationship, interactions, areal differentiation and spatial organization. Dualisms in geography – systematic v/s  regional, physical v/s human.
Unit –II Geography in the ancient and medieval period Development of geographical thoughts in ancient India. Contribution of Greek and Roman Geographers – Herodotus, Eratosthenes, Strabo and Ptolemy. Character of Geography in medieval period – the Dark Age, the Arabic period and the renaissance period.
Unit –III Geography in the modern period. Contribution of German Scholars with special reference to the works of Humbolt. Ritter, Ratzel and Hettner French School of thought – Blacne. Brunhes and Demangeon.
Unit –IV Contribution of British geographers – Mackinder Herbertson and Stamp Contribution of American geographers – Davis, sample and Huntington. Contribution of Indian geographers – R.L. Singh and Mohd. Shafi.
Unit –V Geography in the 20th Century Conceptual and methodological development and changing paradigms. Recent trends in Geography. Impact of positivism, behaviorism, radicalism and humanism. Development of geographic research and teaching in India. Future of Geography.
Climatology and Oceanography
Unit –I  Nature and scope of climatology and its relationship with meterology. Composition and structure of the atmosphere. Insolation and Heat Budget. Green House Effect. Distribution of Temperature and Pressure. Wind System. Jet Streams.
Unit -II Humidity and Percipitation. Acid Rain, Air Masses and Fronts, Origin, Development and Associated weather related to Cyclones, Anticyclones and Thunderstorms. Ocean atmospheric interaction : El Nino, Soluthern Oscillation (ENSO) and La Nina.
Unit -III Climatic classification of Koppen and Thornthwaite. Major climates of the world -  tropical, temperate, desert and mountain climate. Climatic changes and Global warming.
Unit -IV   Nature and scope of oceanography. Distribution of land and water Surface configuration of the ocean floor. Submarine relief of the  pacific, Atlantic and India Ocean, Composition of Oceanic Water. Distribution of Temperature and Salinity.
Unit -V   Circulation of Oceanic Water  :   Waves, Tides and currents. Ocean Deposits :  their scurces and kinds. Corals and coral reefs : Types and theories of their origin. Ocean as a source of food and minerals with special reference to Indian Ocean.
Urban Geography
Unit-I Nature, scope and signicicance of urban geography Different approaches and recent trends in urban geography. Origin and growth of urban settlements from ancient to modern period – bases and process of urbanization and development. Trends of urbanization in India. Classification of urban centres on the basis of size and function.
Unit –II  Landuse models and theories of urban theories of urban growth. Location and spacing of urban centres  - Central place theory of christaller and Losch Urban areas and conurbation. Hierarchy of urban centres. Rank – size Rule.
Unit –III Organization of urban space  :   Urban morphology and landuse structure City core, commercial, industrial  and residential areas Rural – urban fringe. Morphology of Indian cities with special reference to New Delhi, Chandigarh and Meerut Umland – Concept and its delimitation.
Unit –IV Meaning and Principles of Town Planning, Problems and Planning of Modern towns of India. Contemporary Urban Issues – Urban poverty, urban sprawl, slums an squatter colonies, urban environmental problems.
Unit –V Urban policy and urban planning – development of small and medium size towns, green belts, garden cities, contemporary issues in urban planning. National Capital Region – it concept and dehmitation  development issues regarding ladnuse and transport
Population Geography
Unit –I Nature, scope and significance of population geography, Demography and population geography, historical development of population geography as a field of specialization, sources of population data. Census enumeration, problems of mapping population data.
Unit –II Measures of population growth and demographic transition, Distribution of population and its geographical determinants, population density and its types, world pattern of population distribution.
Unit –III Measures, determinants and world pattern of fertility and mortality, Migration of population – causes, internal and international migrations, Age and Sex – composition.
Unit –IV Rural – Urban composition of population, functional composition of population, urbanization, a comparative study of developing and developed countries, with special reference to India.
Unit –V  Population theories – Malthus, Recardo, Population resources and development, concept of over, optimum and under population, population resource regions of the world, population policy in India.
Agriculture Geography
Unit –I     Nature, scope, significance and development of agriculture geography. Approaches to the study of agriculture geography: Commodity, systematic and regional. Origin and dispersal of agricultural. Sources of agricultural data.
Unit –II    Determinants of agricultural land use. Physical, economic, social and technological, land holding and land tenure systems, Land reforms, land use Policy and planning. Selected agricultural concepts and their measurements; cropping pattern, crop concentration, intensity of cropping, degree of commercialization, diversification and specialization and specialization, efficiency and productivity, crop combination regions and agricultural development.
Unit –III    Theories of agricultural location based on several multi-dimensioned factors:  Von Thunen’s theory of agricultural location and its recent modifications; Whittlesey’s classification of agricultural regions, land use and land capability.
Unit –IV  Agriculture in India – Land use and shifting cropping pattern. Regional pattern of productivity in India. Green revolution, White Revolution, Food deficit and food surplus regions; Specific problems in Indian agriculture and their management and planning. Agricultural policy in India.
Unit –V   Contemporary Issues: Food, nutrition and hunger, drought and food security, food aid programmes : environment degradation due to role of irrigation, role of irrigation, fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides, technological know-how. Employment in the agricultural sector.
Quantitative techniques in geography
Unit –I Significance of quantitative and statistical techniques in Geography. Frequency distributions. Types of frequency graphs. Measures of central tendency. Measures of dispersion skewness and  kurtosis.
Unit -II  Theory of probabilities :  Law of addition and multiplication Probabilities of distribution – normal and poisson. Theory  of Sampling – Methods of sampling, Problems of Sampling. Simple linear regression an dmultiple regression analysis.
Unit -III  Correlation Analysis :  Karl Pearsons’s Product Moment and spearman’s Rank Correlation. Coefficients and their limits. Tests of significance – parametric and non- parametric. Chi – square test. t – test, variance test.
Unit -IV  Spatial Statistics :  Mean Centre, Median Centre, Location Quotient, Population Potential.
Unit -V   nearest Neighbour Analysis. Shape Analysis, Accessibility and Connectivity Index.
Arial Photography and Remote Sensing
Unit –I   Aerial Photography- Definition, Scope, advantages and limitations, Types and Geometry of aerial photographs and characteristics, Flight planning, Elements of photographic system – aerial camera an aerial films, procurement of aerial photographs in India.
Unit -II Numbering and naming of aerial photographs, Determination of scale of aerial photographs, Basics of analytical and digital photograpmmetry.
Unit -III  Image interpretation, and ………….key, stereoscopy and types of stereoscopes, stereoscopic parallax, use of parallax bar, measurement of height and slope.
Unit -IV Definition, types and scope of remote sensing, Development of Remote sensing, stage in remote sensing, data acuistion, electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic spectrum, black body radiation and radiation laws, Interaction of EMR with Earth’s surface features, Role of atmosphere in remote sensing.
Unit -V Types an salient characteristics of orbital platforms, types and geometry sensor, senser resolutions and application, remote  sensing date products, in denting of remote sensing data in India.
P.G. Diploma in R.S. & G.I.S. Syllabus
Photography and Cartography
Unit – I Aerial Photography Aerial photography – Definition, scope, advantages and limitations; Flight planning: Elements of photographic system -  Aerial camera and aerial films; Types and geometry of aerial photographs; Procurement of aerial photographs in India.
Unit - II Stereophotogrammetry Stereoscopy an  types of stereoscopes; Stereoscopic parallax; Use of parallax bar: Measurement of height and slopes; Photogram metric stereo plotters and mapping instruments; Control extension and aerial triangulation.
Unit-III  Basics of Digital Photogrammetry Basics of analytical and digital photogrammetry; Photogrammetric mapping and mapping accuracy
Unit – IV Cartography Defining cartography; Aspects of cartography : Scale projection, map generalization, map design, map construction and reproduction: Types and series of maps; Coordinates; Map numbering system.
Principles of Remote Sensing & Image Interpretation
Unit –I Principles of Remote Sensing Definition, types and scope of remote sensing; Development of remote sensing; Stage in remote sensing data acquisition; Electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic spectrum; Black body radiation and radiation laws; Interaction of EMR with Earth’s surface features; Role of atmosphere in remote sensing.
Unit –II Platforms, Sensors and Data Products Types and salient characteristics of orbital platforms; Types and geometry sensors; Sensors resolutions and applications, Remote sensing date products; Indenting of remote sensing data in India; Advance Topics in Remote Sensing: Artificial intelligence.
Unit –III Ground Truth and Remote Sensing images Ground truth in remote sensing; Instruments for ground truth date collection; Spectral signatures of different objects : Soil, Vegetation, Water, Snow and Clouds; Interpretation of MMS, thermal and microwave images.
Unit –IV Image Interpretation Introduction to image interpretation; Factors affecting image interpretation: Image characteristics and preparation of image interpretation keys; Methods and techniques of image interpretation; Multi concepts in image interpretation.
Digital Image Processing
Unit –I Digital Image Processing Digital images: Terms and definitions; Digital image data formats; Hardware and Software Requirements for image processing : Hardware specifications and software modules: Analog-to-digital conversion and display of digital images.
Unit –II Statistics and Corrections applied in Image Processing Basic statistic used in image processing; Image restoration : Radiometric and geometric corrections; Image rectification.
Unit –III Image enhancements Contrast stretching: Linear and non –liner contrast, Histogram equalization; Density slicing; Band ratioing: Image convolution; Filtering techniques in image processing; Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
Unit –IV Image classification Supervised classification: Parallelepiped classifier, Minimum distance to mean classifier, Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier; Unsupervised classification.
Practical  - I
Photogrammetry and Image Interpretation
Unit – I Aerial Photography Introduction to vertical aerial photographs; Problems on the determination of number of trips and aerial photographs; Determination of Photo scale; Numerical problems on the determination of photo scale; Preparation of photo index.
Unit –II Photogrammetry Stereo test; Orientation of stereo pair under mirror stereoscope; Use of parallax bar and the determination of heights and slopes; Preparation base map;
Unit –III Interpretation of Aerial Photographs Detection of defined objects; Use of auxiliary  information in object identification; Preparation of image interpretation keys;  Interpretation of stereo pair for physical and cultural features; Preparation of land use / land cover classification system based on aerial photographs; Interpretation, delineation, and mapping of general land use; Updating of existing maps; Use of planimeter and dot/ square grid for the measurement of area.
Unit –IV Interpretation of Satellite Imageries Referencing and lay out of satellite images; Identification of objects/features on multiband imageries and FCC; Interpretation of physical and cultural features from IRS imagery: Preparation of image interpretation keys using FCC: Interpretation, delineation and mapping of land use/ land cover using FCC; Study of infrared radiometer; Collection of radiant temperature and drawing of its graphs of diurnal variations; Use of spectroradiometer – Production and analysis of spectral reflectance curves.
Practical –II
Digital Image Processing
Unit – I Introduction to Image Processing

System Configuration; Loading of digital data from CCT/CD ROM; Conversion of image data to ERDAS / Image Analyst format; Build statistics for newly loaded data; Loading of data form disk to VDU;

Unit – II Image Restoration and Enhancement Digital images and image restoration; Image enhancement: Histogram display and equalization; Band to band ratioing; Image filtering; Principal Component Analysis.
Unit –III Pattern Recognition and Image Classification Image classification: Supervised and Unsupervised Classification.
Unit – IV Programming for Image Processing Programming on C++/ Java

Practical – III
Geographical Information System and Global Positioning System
Unit – I  Introduction to Computers & GIS Introduction to computers, Basics of operating system : DOS and Windows; Hardware and software requirements of GIS; Graphical user interface of Arc-Info, Arc-View and Geo Media.
Unit – II Data Input, Topology Building and Coordinates Digitization and scanning; Topology building ; Editing, cleaning; Coordinate transformation; Non spatial data entry.
Unit – III Spatial Analysis Overlay, buffer and proximity analysis; 3D Modeling : Digital elevation models Query building : attribute and spatial; Output and report generation; Demonstration on GPS; Creation of ground control using GPS
Unit – IV Advanced Topic in GIS Practical exercises on ORACLE and ACCESS.
Practical – IV
Remote Sensing and GIS Application
Unit – I   Land use /Land Cove Mapping Land use/ Land cover classification system; Multi – level classification; Land use/Land cover mapping using vertical aerial photographs and satellite imageries.
Unit – II Urban Land Use Mapping Urban land use classification system; Urban land use mapping an chage detection; Interpretation of residential land use and the measurement of net residential areas; Urban population estimation.
Unit – III Geomorphic Mapping Physiographic analysis; Photo/image sample study for understanding basic elements of interpretation in terrain evaluation; Remote sensing data in identification, delineation and mapping of various landforms and their significance; Identification and delineation of different rock types and geologic structures.
Unit – IV  Agriculture Crop Inventory and Mapping Spectral characteristics of corps using Spectroadiometer; Land use/land cover mapping using visual interpretation methods; Agricultural land use mapping using digital techniques; Crop identification and crop acreage estimation; Creation of spatial and non spatial data for land use change detection and crop inventory analysis.
Practical – V
Practical training at any Recognized centre of remote sensing for a period of at least for fifteen days. The following two centers should be preferred:
  1. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun.
  2. Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee.
The candidate should be obtain a certificate from the training institute and the viva-voce exam of 100 marks will be performed at the University centre by a board of examiners (Internal and external both)
Job opportunities
G.I.S. & Remote Sensing -  It is one of the most popular and career oriented course. It is in high demand among the students and it produces professionals. M.Phil programme – C.C.S.University is the only university of North India where recently many students take (Geography)  as a optional paper in competitive exams. So now a days (M.A./M.Sc.) Geography is the most popular subject among the students
100% Placement
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